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Unix Komut Özeti

4 hafta 2 gün önce #195 Yazan: badsez
Unix Komut Özeti, badsez tarafından oluşturuldu
See the Unix tutorial for a leisurely, self-paced introduction on how to use the commands listed below. For more documentation on a command,
consult a good book, or use the man pages. For example, for more
information on grep, use the command man grep.
Contents

    cat --- for creating and displaying short files
    chmod --- change permissions
    cd --- change directory
    cp --- for copying files
    date --- display date
    echo --- echo argument
    ftp --- connect to a remote machine to download or upload files
    grep --- search file
    head --- display first part of file
    ls --- see what files you have
    lpr --- standard print command (see also print )
    more --- use to read files
    mkdir --- create directory
    mv --- for moving and renaming files
    ncftp --- especially good for downloading files via anonymous ftp.
    print --- custom print command (see also lpr )
    pwd --- find out what directory you are in
    rm --- remove a file
    rmdir --- remove directory
    rsh --- remote shell
    setenv --- set an environment variable
    sort --- sort file
    tail --- display last part of file
    tar --- create an archive, add or extract files
    telnet --- log in to another machine
    wc --- count characters, words, lines


cat
This is one of the most flexible Unix commands. We can use to create, view
and concatenate files. For our first example we create a three-item
English-Spanish dictionary in a file called "dict."

   % cat >dict
     red rojo
     green verde
     blue azul
<control-D>
   %

<control-D> stands for "hold the control key down, then tap 'd'". The symbol >
tells the computer that what is typed is to be put into the file dict.
To view a file we use cat in a different way:

   % cat dict
     red rojo
     green verde
     blue azul
   %

If we wish to add text to an existing file we do this:

   % cat >>dict
     white blanco
     black negro
     <control-D>
   %

Now suppose that we have another file tmp that looks like this:

   % cat tmp
     cat gato
     dog perro
   %

Then we can join dict and tmp like this:

   % cat dict tmp >dict2

We could check the number of lines in the new file like this:

   % wc -l dict2
8

The command wc counts things --- the number of characters, words, and line in a file.
chmod
This command is used to change the permissions of a file or directory. For
example to make a file essay.001 readable by everyone, we do this:

   % chmod a+r essay.001

To make a file, e.g., a shell script mycommand executable, we do this

   % chmod +x mycommand

Now we can run mycommand as a command. To check the permissions of a file,
use ls -l . For more information on chmod, use man chmod.
cd
Use cd to change directory. Use pwd to see what directory you are in.

   % cd english
   % pwd
   % /u/ma/jeremy/english
   % ls
novel poems
   % cd novel
   % pwd
   % /u/ma/jeremy/english/novel
   % ls
ch1 ch2 ch3 journal scrapbook
   % cd ..
   % pwd
   % /u/ma/jeremy/english
   % cd poems
   % cd
   % /u/ma/jeremy

Jeremy began in his home directory, then went to his english subdirectory. He
listed this directory using ls , found that it contained two entries,
both of which happen to be diretories. He cd'd to the diretory novel,
and found that he had gotten only as far as chapter 3 in his writing.
Then he used cd .. to jump back one level. If had wanted to jump back
one level, then go to poems he could have said cd ../poems. Finally he
used cd with no argument to jump back to his home directory.
cp
Use cp to copy files or directories.

   % cp foo foo.2

This makes a copy of the file foo.

   % cp ~/poems/jabber .

This copies the file jabber in the directory poems to the current directory.
The symbol "." stands for the current directory. The symbol "~" stands
for the home directory.
date
Use this command to check the date and time.

   % date
Fri Jan  6 08:52:42 MST 1995

echo
The echo command echoes its arguments. Here are some examples:

   % echo this
     this
   % echo $EDITOR
     /usr/local/bin/emacs
   % echo $PRINTER
     b129lab1

Things like PRINTER are so-called environment variables. This one stores the
name of the default printer --- the one that print jobs will go to
unless you take some action to change things. The dollar sign before an
environment variable is needed to get the value in the variable. Try the
following to verify this:

   % echo PRINTER
     PRINTER

ftp
Use ftp to connect to a remote machine, then upload or download files. See also: ncftp
Example 1: We'll connect to the machine fubar.net, then change director to mystuff, then download the file homework11:

   % ftp solitude
     Connected to fubar.net.
     220 fubar.net FTP server (Version wu-2.4(11) Mon Apr 18 17:26:33 MDT 1994) ready.
   Name (solitude:carlson): jeremy
     331 Password required for jeremy.
   Password:
     230 User jeremy logged in.
   ftp> cd mystuff
     250 CWD command successful.
   ftp> get homework11
   ftp> quit

Example 2: We'll connect to the machine fubar.net, then change director to mystuff, then upload the file collected-letters:

   % ftp solitude
     Connected to fubar.net.
     220 fubar.net FTP server (Version wu-2.4(11) Mon Apr 18 17:26:33 MDT 1994) ready.
   Name (solitude:carlson): jeremy
     331 Password required for jeremy.
   Password:
     230 User jeremy logged in.
   ftp> cd mystuff
     250 CWD command successful.
   ftp> put collected-letters
   ftp> quit

The ftp program sends files in ascii (text) format unless you specify binary mode:

   ftp> binary
   ftp> put foo
   ftp> ascii
   ftp> get bar

The file foo was transferred in binary mode, the file bar was transferred in ascii mode.
grep
Use this command to search for information in a file or files. For example, suppose that we have a file dict whose contents are

   red rojo
   green verde
   blue azul
   white blanco
   black negro

Then we can look up items in our file like this;

   % grep red dict
     red rojo
   % grep blanco dict
     white blanco
   % grep brown dict
   %

Notice that no output was returned by grep brown. This is because "brown" is not in our dictionary file.
Grep can also be combined with other commands. For example, if one had a
file of phone numbers named "ph", one entry per line, then the following
command would give an alphabetical list of all persons whose name
contains the string "Fred".

   % grep Fred ph | sort
     Alpha, Fred: 333-6565
     Beta, Freddie: 656-0099
     Frederickson, Molly: 444-0981
     Gamma, Fred-George: 111-7676
     Zeta, Frederick: 431-0987

The symbol "|" is called "pipe." It pipes the output of the grep command
into the input of the sort command. For more information on grep,
consult

   % man grep

head
Use this command to look at the head of a file. For example,

   % head essay.001

displays the first 10 lines of the file essay.001 To see a specific number of lines, do this:

   % head -n 20 essay.001

This displays the first 20 lines of the file.
ls
Use ls to see what files you have. Your files are kept in something called a directory.

   % ls
     foo       letter2
     foobar    letter3
     letter1   maple-assignment1
   %

Note that you have six files. There are some useful variants of the ls command:

   % ls l*
     letter1 letter2 letter3
   %

Note what happened: all the files whose name begins with "l" are listed. The
asterisk (*) is the " wildcard" character. It matches any string.
lpr
This is the standard Unix command for printing a file. It stands for the ancient "line printer." See

   % man lpr

for information on how it works. See print for information on our local intelligent print command.
mkdir
Use this command to create a directory.

   % mkdir essays

To get "into" this directory, do

   % cd essays

To see what files are in essays, do this:

   % ls

There shouldn't be any files there yet, since you just made it. To create files, see cat or emacs.
more
More is a command used to read text files. For example, we could do this:

   % more poems

The effect of this to let you read the file "poems ". It probably will not
fit in one screen, so you need to know how to "turn pages". Here are the
basic commands:

    q --- quit more
    spacebar --- read next page
    return key --- read next line
    b --- go back one page

For still more information, use the command man more.
mv
Use this command to change the name of file and directories.

   % mv foo foobar

The file that was named foo is now named foobar
ncftp
Use ncftp for anonymous ftp --- that means you don't have to have a password.

   % ncftp ftp.fubar.net
     Connected to ftp.fubar.net
   > get jokes.txt

The file jokes.txt is downloaded from the machine ftp.fubar.net.
print
This is a moderately intelligent print command.

   % print foo
   % print notes.ps
   % print manuscript.dvi

In each case print does the right thing, regardless of whether the file is
a text file (like foo ), a postcript file (like notes.ps, or a dvi file
(like manuscript.dvi. In these examples the file is printed on the
default printer. To see what this is, do

   % print

and read the message displayed. To print on a specific printer, do this:

   % print foo jwb321
   % print notes.ps jwb321
   % print manuscript.dvi jwb321

To change the default printer, do this:

   % setenv PRINTER jwb321

pwd
Use this command to find out what directory you are working in.

   % pwd
/u/ma/jeremy
   % cd homework
   % pwd
/u/ma/jeremy/homework
   % ls
assign-1 assign-2 assign-3
   % cd
   % pwd
/u/ma/jeremy
   %

Jeremy began by working in his "home" directory. Then he cd 'd into his
homework subdirectory. Cd means " change directory". He used pwd to
check to make sure he was in the right place, then used ls to see if all
his homework files were there. (They were). Then he cd'd back to his
home directory.
rm
Use rm to remove files from your directory.

   % rm foo
     remove foo? y
   % rm letter*
     remove letter1? y
     remove letter2? y
     remove letter3? n
   %

The first command removed a single file. The second command was intended to
remove all files beginning with the string "letter." However, our user
(Jeremy?) decided not to remove letter3.
rmdir
Use this command to remove a directory. For example, to remove a directory called "essays", do this:

   % rmdir essays

A directory must be empty before it can be removed. To empty a directory, use rm.
rsh
Use this command if you want to work on a computer different from the one
you are currently working on. One reason to do this is that the remote
machine might be faster. For example, the command

   % rsh solitude

connects you to the machine solitude. This is one of our public workstations and is fairly fast.
See also: telnet
setenv

   % echo $PRINTER
     labprinter
   % setenv PRINTER myprinter
   % echo $PRINTER
     myprinter

sort
Use this commmand to sort a file. For example, suppose we have a file dict with contents

red rojo
green verde
blue azul
white blanco
black negro

Then we can do this:

   % sort dict
     black negro
     blue azul
     green verde
     red rojo
     white blanco

Here the output of sort went to the screen. To store the output in file we do this:

   % sort dict >dict.sorted

You can check the contents of the file dict.sorted using cat , more , or emacs .
tail
Use this command to look at the tail of a file. For example,

   % tail essay.001

displays the last 10 lines of the file essay.001 To see a specific number of lines, do this:

   % tail -n 20 essay.001

This displays the last 20 lines of the file.
tar
Use create compressed archives of directories and files, and also to extract directories and files from an archive. Example:

   % tar -tvzf foo.tar.gz

displays the file names in the compressed archive foo.tar.gz while

   % tar -xvzf foo.tar.gz

extracts the files.
telnet
Use this command to log in to another machine from the machine you are
currently working on. For example, to log in to the machine "solitude",
do this:

   % telnet solitude

See also: rsh.
wc
Use this command to count the number of characters, words, and lines in a
file. Suppose, for example, that we have a file dict with contents

red rojo
green verde
blue azul
white blanco
black negro

Then we can do this

   % wc dict
     5      10      56 tmp

This shows that dict has 5 lines, 10 words, and 56 characters.
The word count command has several options, as illustrated below:

   % wc -l dict
     5 tmp
   % wc -w dict
     10 tmp
   % wc -c dict
     56 tmp    

dummy

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